Meet the Buffalo (AKA: American Bison)

 

America’s National Mammal

Did you know that the American Bison was named the National Mammal of the U.S. These amazing animals are very much a part of the history of the U.S. They are also wonderful creatures to observe in the wild.

Where Do The Buffalo Roam?

Though captive bison can be found in many places the best places to observe their natural behaviors is in one of the National Refuges or Parks where they are protected and allowed to roam freely through the plains and mountainsides. I have shown some pictures of the buffalo in an earlier blog about a trip to Yellowstone National Park, but this year we found a little lesser known place where you can view these majestic animals along with much other wildlife. This place is known as the National Bison Range and is located in the Western part of Montana. It covers about 19,00 acres with various ecosystems and a large variety of plant and animal species.

The Safest Way to View Them Is In Your Car!

One of the first things you will find out as you enter the refuge is the rule “Stay in your car!” There are only a couple places where you can get out to walk a short distance. One is at the top of the mountain. It’s a beautiful view of the area. The reason for this rule is your safety and that of the animals. After all, it is a refuge, a sanctuary for wildlife. By staying in your car you can get some incredible photographs of these animals. There are also Grizzly Bears in the refuge!

 

One of the Most Dangerous Animals in the U.S.

Interestingly, the buffalo is considered one of the most dangerous animals in the United States. Records kept in Yellowstone National Park register about three to one the injuries caused by buffalo vs bear within the park. People not willing to abide by the rules often find out the hard way why the rule is established! If you were to encounter a buffalo in the wild and were not in your car, you could actually watch for the animal’s warning signs. A tail wagging and hanging down indicates the animal is peaceful. If that tail rises, you better beware! A charge is about to begin. Best move away but don’t run!

Close Up and Personal:

As you can see from these photos, you can easily capture nice photographs of these animals while remaining in the safety of your car. My wife actually made a video of the animals crossing the road in front of us. Many mothers and calves crossed the road right where we could see them very clearly.

Red Dogs???

Did you know the early settlers often called the baby calves of buffalo “red dogs”? This is because the babies have a reddish brown coloration for the first 3 months of their lives. Mothers are quite protective of their young and the calves stay close by their mothers for protection. Guess what enemies the buffalo face?: Wolves and Grizzly Bears.

Babies can stay with their mothers from 7 to 18 months. If mothers become pregnant that time is reduced. Buffalo mature at about 3 – 4 years of age. Birth order can be significant in establishing dominance. Those born first have a more likely chance of claiming dominance because of their size difference.

The Males Go Off and Leave the Females and Young

At about three years of age the male buffalo go off on their own. The only time they spend time with the females is during the mating season. Males either live alone or gather in Bachelor Herds. We saw some loners around the park. They are much larger than the females.

Males can weigh from 900 to 2,000 lbs. Females to 1,091. And adult can be up to 7 to 11.5 ft. in length. Their shoulder height can be from 60 to 72 inches.

 

Other Interesting Buffalo Facts:

Buffalo once ranged in massive herds. They were very important to the Native Americans who used every part of the animals for food and clothing and other items.

Buffalo were almost driven to extinction due to over hunting by the early European settlers. Their hides were sold and many times the majority of the animals were just left to rot and decay.

Buffalo were often killed to drive out the Indian populations that depended on them.

Buffalo were the “trailblazers” for many of our railroad systems. Their paths were expanded to carry the trains across the country and well as provide highways through the mountains and plains.

“Horning” is a practice used by buffalo to repel insects. They scrape their horns against aromatic trees like cedar and pine to cover their bodies with odor that repels insects. This is especially practiced in the fall of the year when insect pest are most prevalent.

Buffalo communicate with grunting sounds. The male bulls can bellow with sounds that can be heard 3 miles away!

The heads of Buffalo are uniquely designed for use as a snow plow in the winter.

Buffalo usually live to the age of 15 in the wild and can live much longer in captivity.

Buffalo usually travel about 2 miles a day feeding. In this way they can mow down the grasses and allow them to regrow for their future visits.

Buffalo meat is highly desired and deemed even better than beef meat. It is higher in protein, lower in fat and cholesterol than beef. For this reason buffalo are often raised for commercial harvest.  Some of those raised for meat reach the weight of 3,801 lbs.

Buffalo horns are curved upward and are about 2 ft. long.

In the Winter, Buffalo grow a winter coat. In the Springtime these are shed or rubbed off on rocks and trees trunks. They look very shaggy at this time.

Mating usually occurs between July to September of the year. Usually only one calf is born by each mother which can stand up and walk within 30 minutes of birth.

At one time over 50 Million buffalo roamed in North America. In 1890 there were only about 300 left. Fortunately they became a protected species and have since been managed by the Department of Fish and Game.

Buffalo wallow in the dust and mud to help remove and control parasites.

Many cattle farmers are concerned with Buffalo crossing over into their range land. Buffalo can carry a disease called  brucellosis which causes developing  calves to die before birth. Ironically, this disease first arrived via the cattle introduced into the native regions harboring the buffalo.

Buffalo can move very quickly! They have been clocked at 40 miles an hour. They can also jump vertically a 6 ft. fence.

The scientific name of the Buffalo you see in this blog post is Bison bison.

Buffalo Point to Their Creator:

As I have viewed and researched these animals, the more I learn, the more I see God’s handiwork on display. God created these animals with a purpose. Interestingly, it is often man’s sinfulness that leads to the disharmony in Creation. Because of man’s greed and lack of responsibility, many types of animals have been threatened or even have gone extinct! It is important as wise stewards of His Creation to remember the Dominion Mandate given to man by God. We are to oversee and care for His Creation not abuse it. This can start right where you live and where you go. Clean up after yourself and respect the wildlife. Let’s make sure these and other creatures will remain  for future generations to enjoy because of our stewardship.

“Oh, You can’t roller-skate in a buffalo heard. But you can be happy if you’ve a mind to!”  These are the words of a fun song we sang as a kid.

Why Not Learn More About the Buffalo?:

By doing a little research you can learn how the buffalo have impacted the history of the United States. Some things to research are:

How many U.S. coins have the image of a Buffalo on them?

How did the Native Americans use the various parts of these animals to create shelter, clothing, food and other personal items?

How did the railroad industry affect the Buffalo?

What was the significance of a “White Buffalo” (Albino) to the Native American?

How many places have the word “Buffalo” in their names? 

For how many dollars was a Buffalo hide sold?

Elk, The Largest Deer Species in the World

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Oh Deer, That’s Big!

While on vacation in Montana this summer, my wife and I spent a day in the National Bison Wildlife Refuge. Besides the Bison (Buffalo) we also saw other creatures. One of the most interesting was the Elk. I was immediately impressed by their size! Some bull elk can be over 1,000 lbs. in weight and be over 8 ft. long from nose to tail. Now that’s big!

 

Wapiti??? What’s That?

One new thing I learned while doing research is that these creatures are also known as “Wapiti”, a name given them by the Native Americans in the past. The word means “Light colored deer.” 

An Interesting Fact About Elk:

At one of our first stops in the park we encountered this pile of elk horns. Did you know that elk drop their horns every year and then grow a new pair? These are some that have been found in the park over the years. As you can see, even though I am over 6 ft. tall, the horns are higher than I. Just one pair of horns can weigh up to 40 lbs. Now that’s a weapon to be respected! The male elk often use these to fight for the right of selecting the females for reproduction. These battles have been known to end in death. I wouldn’t want to anger a bull elk! The horns are often gathered and used as decoration and made into various objects. Hunters like to hang them on the wall as a memento of their hunting trip.

 

 Bachelor Herd of Bull Elk

It’s interesting to note that the male elk do not live year round with the females and young. They go off and gather with other bull elk until the mating season comes in the fall of the year. We saw four in one group but these groups can be larger.

Friends Until the Rut:

The bull elk get along well until the rut. Their antlers are covered in velvet, a soft fuzzy covering on newly grown horns. When they harden the velvet is rubbed off on tree limbs and the elk change their behavior from calm and social to aggressive and combative. At this time the males contend for the right to a group of females.

 

 

Flower Power:

Besides the grasses the elk eat, they have a taste for wildflowers. Some of their favorites are dandelions, violets, clover, and asters. They also do the gourmet thing and eat mushrooms.

 

Other Elk Facts:

Generally elk live from 8-12 years though some have lived to 20 years.

A baby elk calf can stand up within 20 minutes of birth.

Bull elk have two canine teeth known as “Ivories”. These are often kept by hunters as trophies of the hunt.

There are several species of elk in the US and Canada.

One species is named after President Theodore Roosevelt. He was the one to establish this National Bison Wildlife Refuge back in 1908. It is one of the oldest of the National Parks in the US.

Elk have quite a vocabulary of sounds. The males are known for their bugling during the rut. They also have various whistles and grunts and squeals which have various meanings to the herd around. Babies will send out an alarm to mothers if they feel threatened. You don’t want to threaten a baby elk! Mothers are very protective.

The species of elk in these pictures are Cervus elaphus.

The meat of elk tastes a lot like beef. It has a mild flavor. I had a meatloaf at Quinn’s Hotsprings after our day of watching bison and elk. The meatloaf was a combination of buffalo (bison), elk, and beef. It was quite tasty.

 

Amazing Design!

As I travel and observe the creatures God created for us to enjoy, I am constantly amazed at their unique design. Each creature was given all that it would need to survive in its habitat. Some can live where others can not. Others live in harmony with surrounding animals and plants. Their diets are different so that all have enough food to survive. Each animal variety serves an important part in the ecosystems of its surroundings. I can’t believe this all happened by chance. It clearly indicates a Divine Creator who had a plan. He also has a plan for your life.

 

Great Horned Owls: Give a Hoot!

Largest Owl in USA

What a find! I found four Great Horned Owls sitting in the loafing shed at the ranch in Kuna, Idaho while on vacation this summer. Three of the four were babies. These majestic birds are fun to watch and they “talk” to you at night time. In addition to the United States, these owls also range into Canada and sections of South America.

 

I’ve Got My Eyes On You!

One of the most distinctive characteristics of these birds is their large yellow eyes. these have been designed by our Creator to see well in the dark. These birds also have the ability to direct their gaze by swiveling their heads almost clear around. You will also notice their ear tufts from which they get their name.

One stayed behind when the others flew the away. 

Well Adapted for Change:

When God created these birds He gave them the ability to adapt to changing environments. They are a very successful species that can be found practically all over the US in a wide variety of habitats. The ones photographed here are very helpful in controlling  rodents, rabbits, birds, and other creatures around the farm.

Known By Other Names:

The Great Horned Owls have also been called “Hoot Owls”. They also go by the name “Tiger Owls” because of their coloration and predatory habits. Their most specific name is their scientific name Bubo virginianus.

Carnivores With a Wide Range of Diets:

The Great Horned owls have a varied diet. They are real “Meat-Lovers”. Some of the creatures eaten include: rats, mice, voles, rabbits, small birds, reptiles, frogs, and on occasion, they even have eaten fish. One of the most interesting food stuffs they eat, however, is skunk. There are not many predators that will eat these smelly creatures. They also eat opossum, and other mammals. With such a wide range of food sources they easily adapt to new territories.

 

Secrecy and Stealth:

Because of their coloration they can easily hide out during the day time and often perch high and watch the territory below to strike prey that move within their territory. They often fly from roost to roost watching the area below.  Most of their hunting is at night but they have also been known to take prey in the day time when the opportunity for a quick meal is present. (The optimum time to view them hunting is between 8:30 PM  to 12:00 AM.) Because of their sound dampening feathers they can approach prey with nearly a sound. When the prey recognizes it has been had, it’s too late. They can apply a great deal of pressure with their long claws which often puncture the prey on contact. They generally eat their prey whole unless it is too big to get down their gullet. In such cases the owls use their beaks to tear their prey into pieces.

 

Home Bodies:

Great Horned Owls tend to be “stay at home” creatures. Once a territory is established they usually remain there year round for their entire life span. An average life span for a Great Horned Owl is about 13 years but they have been known to live to the ripe old age of 29 on occasion.

Beware of Your Enemies!:

Great Horned owls are most vulnerable when they are young. Many creatures like to feed on the eggs and fledglings when located by predators when parents are away. Some creatures that eat owls are coyotes, raccoon, the American black bear, opossum, feral cats, bobcats, and foxes. Crows and Ravens like to torment roosting owls by gathering in large groups and surrounding them and making a lot of noise trying to run them away, since they compete for food resources in the territory surrounding their nesting sites.

Watch What You Eat!

Some owls bite off more than they can handle. A few owls have died being pierced by porcupine quills or killed by the very prey they are trying to subdue. One has to count the cost before engaging some creatures.

Humans Are The Greatest Danger!

Most owl deaths, however, are caused by man-made items like: power lines, barbed wire, and collisions with automobiles. When I lived in Lake County, California, a large Great Horned Owl ran into the power line right outside of my house and I took it to school to give to one of the parents of my students who was a game warden. It is illegal to possess and owl without a special permit for the Department of Fish and Game. The one I delivered was sent to the Warm Springs Dam for mounting and use in their nature center.

Once Thought a Threat, Now a Helper:

At one time many owls were killed by persons who raised chickens and other fowl because they often preyed on their livestock. However, most farmers today, consider the Great Horned Owls a friend desirable to have around your farm and home. They are really helpful in controlling the destructive rodent populations that devour crops and carry diseases. Great Horned Owls are protected and it is illegal to hunt them today.

Have You Ever Dissected an Owl Pellet?

One of the most interesting projects that you can do is to dissect an owl pellet. When you first see one it looks like poop, but it actually comes out of the owl at the other end. These hairy balls of fur and bones contain the parts of the animals eaten that could not be digested. One of my students once found the remains of four mice in just one pellet.

The Owl Pellets Above Were Found Under The Roost In The Loafing Shed.

Some people actually make money collecting owl pellets and selling them to schools. They are usually wrapped up in tin foil and baked in an oven to kill any harmful microbes or insects that might be in the pellets. We often use toothpicks and tweezers to tear the balls apart and set out all the bones we find inside. Many scientists study these in order to see what the owls are eating and how many creatures they eat in a given time.

Listen Up And Keep Your Eyes Open:

If you want to see if any of these creatures live in your area you can listen at night for their characteristic hoots or just look in the trees and inside barns and other roosting places in the daytime . A dead give away is to look under roosting trees for their pellets. You will often find them high in the trees overhead resting during the daylight hours. One of the best places to look is along a tree lined river pathway. A good pair of binoculars will help you  get a closer look if they are a distance away from your viewpoint. Take a camera with a zoom lens and you can blow up the image to see more details. If you go on-line or visit your public library, you can learn a lot more about these important creatures. Thank God for His creation and take time to take a closer look around you. There is a lot to learn and enjoy.

 

What Are These Little Green Snakes In My Yard?

Great Snake To Have In Your Yard!

This little snake, a Smooth Green Snake, is a great find if it shows up around your house. Guess what it eats?  Spiders and bugs!

Friendly Little Guys:

These snakes rarely bite and are quite tame when you pick them up. If they do bite they rarely break the skin and they are not poisonous. They just enjoy snacking on the spiders and insects in your yard and are fun to watch, if you can spot them.

 

Excellent Camouflage:

Though quite common, they are rarely seen. Of all the snakes in Tennessee these probably have the best camouflage. They are green like a branch and spend a lot of time above the ground crawling through the vegetation. Animals that climb in trees and vegetation are known as “arboreal” creatures. They even sometimes coil up on branches to rest without being seen. They also are quick to stop moving if activity is going on around them so they do not give away their position to animals that use motion to detect their prey. They would be good at the game “Freeze Tag”. This disguise is not merely for protection, it also allows them to wait for their prey to come to them or to sneak up without being detected.

 

Call Me What You Will, I’m Just A Helpful Neighbor.

These snakes go by several different common names. Sometimes called “Grass Snakes” and “Vine Snakes”, because they resemble the vegetation they crawl through. Unlike the true Vine snakes that are found in tropical regions and are mildly poisonous, these are not. Their scientific name is Opheodrys vernalis. 

Small and Skinny:

These snakes usually range between 11 and 20 inches in length and are very skinny. They are sometimes confused with the  Rough Green Snake which often live in the same territory. However, its easy to see why these snakes are called “smooth Green Snakes”. The other variety has rough scales on its skin.

Shake Your Head:

One of the interesting behaviors of this snake is to watch its head. While zeroing in on its prey it often shakes its head back and forth. It also uses its keen sense of smell to locate its prey. They use their tongues to smell, flicking them in and out and withdrawing them back into their Jacobson’s organs to analyze the chemicals in the air. They are very good and finding their dinner in this manner.

 

Water Loving:

These snakes are often found near the water or at least living in moist environments. They also like rocky boarders and areas with lots of grass and vegetation to hunt in. They are important in the ecosystem controlling the amount of insects and arachnids living their.

 

So…..If You See Us, Be Thankful!

As I discover new creatures in God’s Creation I am so thankful to know that each was designed with a specific purpose and is a testimony of the greatest of the Creator that designed them. I thank God for creating such a wonderful variety of creatures for us to discover and study. The more we look, the more we can praise the One who made them all for us to enjoy.

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Colossians 1: 16

“For by Him were all things created, that are in heaven and earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by Him and for Him.”

Let’s Catch Some Shellcrackers!

Spring Has Sprung The Time Has Come!

One of the best times of the year for fishermen is the Spring Time. That is when the fish are the most active! One of my favorite fish to catch at this time of the year is the Shellcrackers.

 

Largest of the Centrachidae family, they fight aggressively as you bring them to shore. (I personally think they outfight the bass in the lake where I fish!) 

Bottoms Up!

One of the most important things to know when targeting this species is to put your worm on the bottom of the lake where you are more likely to find them. I like to use a sliding sinker with a small split shot beneath so when the fish take the bait you can feel the tug and set the hook before they completely swallow the bait.  Since they often take the bait deep before you have a chance to set the hook, it’s good to have a pair of long-nosed de-hooker pliers handy to remove the hooks.

Great Eating!

Of all the sunfish varieties, I think these are the best tasting as well as the largest. Catch a few and you will have more than enough meat for a meal. One of my favorite ways to eat them is in fish tacos.

                                     The meat is flaky and sweet! 

 

Helpful Fish:

Since these fish specialize in feeding on Mollusks they rarely compete with the other sunfish species that feed at the surface. In addition, they help control the rapid growth of many native species of water snails and especially are helpful in keeping many invasive species in check (like the infamous quagga mussels). Since they are equipped to crack and crush the hard shells of these creatures they are often introduced into waters infested with these alien species. They have been found to be very successful in this venture as well as providing an excellent sport fishing species.

Spring Spawn:

If the water is clear you may see them sitting on their nests near the shore in the Spring Time. This is where they congregate in the Spring.

Daddy Does His Job!

The male builds the nest, and if he does a good job, the female will come and lay her eggs there. Understand that they will be very active at this time.

Don’t Forget The Future!

When I catch them in the Spring I often carefully remove the hooks of the large females with swollen bellies full of eggs. In this way I help insure a healthy population next Spring. This is a good practice with other species as well, but it’s all right to keep some for dinner!  They reproduce well and taking a few won’t cause a problem.

Call Them What You May:

Shellcrackers, Red-Earred Sunfish, Chinquapins, Mollusks Eaters, Georgia Bream, Cherry Gills”, are some of the names given to these fish. No matter what you call them they will make your fishing trip a success. Why not get out there and catch some?

                       Bright Yellow Breast.

 

This Fish Is Full of Eggs. She Went Back In The Lake.

When Wiggling In The Light They Are Like Peacock Feathers.

They show off their many colors.

When God Created These Fish He Used A Colorful Pallet! The colors change as they move in the light.

Baby Cottontail Rabbits In My Garden

What’s That Growing in My Garden?

I had an interesting experience this afternoon. As the weather has finally changed to Spring Time, I decided it was time to clear the weeds out of my garden. All was going well until I noticed some fur at the base of one of the large weeds I removed. All of a sudden the ground began to move and out popped the head of a tiny bunny rabbit. In fact, there were five little cottontails inside the shallow fur lined depression. I learned that these are called “forms” and are used as nest for baby rabbits in the Springtime. Apparently, cottontails don’t dig burrows in the ground for homes. Instead, some find old holes dug by skunks, squirrels, and other animals. Since the mother only feeds her baby cottontails twice a day, they choose the best time to avoid detection, morning and evening. The grass, weeds, brush, and other plants around the “forms” provide great concealment during the day.

Many Enemies

Rabbits are very productive. They pump out babies in bunches of five or so, and just keep bringing new ones into the world. The number of individual babies an animal produces is usually directly related to their mortality rate. Since very few of the babies will ever reach maturity the mothers produce many litters every year during their short life spans. Dogs, coyotes, owls, snakes, foxes, cats, many birds of prey, raccoons, weasels, crows, man, and even squirrels attack baby rabbits and their parents. Cottontails are classified as a game animal and rules are established by the Department of Fish and Game for their protection. Farmers are allowed to kill them if they are causing agricultural problems.

Live and Let Live

I don’t mind sharing some of my vegetables with wildlife in my yard. I think it is interesting to observe the creatures that live in my area. In the hope that these little rabbits survive I pushed a little of the dirt around the form and replaced one of the weeds I pulled to partially cover the bunnies. I’m hoping the mother will come back and move them to a more secure place this evening.

Interesting Rabbit Facts

Why the White Tails?

Scientists have studied animals with white tails to try to figure out their function. Most conclude it actually confuses prey animals chasing them as they dart to and fro in their bouncy escape. It’s sort of like a bull fighter waving a red flag.

Wow! That’s a Lot of Babies!

Each batch of babies is called a “kit”. A mother rabbit can produce up to seven kits a year. That potentially would be about 35 bunnies in all, however, most only produce about five kits. A lot depends in the environmental conditions, food, water, and rate of predation.

What’s Been Chewing On My Tree?

Sometimes these rabbits can develop a taste for the bark of certain trees and can cause damage or even death of the trees that they gnaw on. Many tree experts put metal or plastic guards around the bases of trees to prevent this kind of damage.

Worldwide Distribution

Of the more than 60 species of rabbits the kinds of cottontails make up 13 of them. There are nine species of cottontails in North America and Mexico. Cottontails are found all around the world in both cold and warm regions.

And In This Corner We Have The Lightweights

A fully developed Eastern Cottontail is about 15-19 inches long (38-49 cm). They can weigh from two to four pounds.

Speedy Rabbits

Cottontails can run a speeds of 18 mph for up to a half mile. They have to be fast to avoid capture.

The pictures above are two days later. Notice the hair starting to form.

Now That Smells!

They have excellent ability to smell having about 100 million sensing receptors in their noses. (That compares to about 5-6 million in humans).

Specialized Teeth

Rabbits have teeth that just keep growing. The grasses and other vegetation they feed on and their gnawing on tree trunks help keep their teeth trimmed. These unique teeth enable them to maintain healthy teeth for all their dietary needs.

Consider the Evidence for Design

As I observe these, and other creatures, I am called to consider how all this specialized design came to be. I personally believe it all points to a common Designer. How about you?

The picture below was taken on April 19, 2018. Note that one of the original bunnies died. He was the runt of the litter. The others seem to be doing well in spite of some really cold evenings and a couple down pours.

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I finally caught the Mother with the babies in the morning.

Below are some more pictures a few days later:

Notice that they are getting bolder. This one left the nest when I lifted the weeds from on top. He stayed close and went right back into the shelter once I stood back. Not long from now they will have to fend for themselves.

Below is a second bunch of babies discovered in my garden box in mid July. They are very good at blending in to the background.

Baby Snapping Turtles

 

You Must have Been A Beautiful Baby!

Isn’t it fun to look at baby pictures and try to guess who they are many years later? The same is true with animals. Some go through dramatic transformations and look totally different as they go through metamorphosis. Isn’t  it amazing how different a butterfly is from the caterpillar it was formerly? Other animals go through dramatic growth stages. One such animal is the Snapping Turtle.

This last week I received the pictures that are in this post. This little “snapper” was found while my friend, Danae Was cleaning out the garage in Arlington, Texas. You probably remember the blog post about the turtle survey we participated in at Spring Lake. The two large snappers that were seen in that blog are what the turtles look like when they grow up. You can also see pictures of even larger snappers in my earlier blog post. (I’ve included one at the bottom of this post.) So……let me show you the baby one:

Isn’t It A Cutie?

Notice Its Size In Relation to the Quarter.

Bottoms Up! Notice It Already Has Long Claws.

 

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Wow! You’ve Changed A Lot Since I Last Saw You!

Notice how the ridges on the back smooth out as the turtles grow. Turtles have very long life cycles. Some live to be 100 years old. Wow! It’s best to leave the turtles to grow in their natural environments and go and observe them in their home territories. Turtles do best in the wild and you are more likely to observe their natural behaviors there. 

As you look at these turtles and consider their amazing design, just think of the amount of information that must be stored in their DNA for this growth process to occur over the turtle’s life span. Amazing design demands an Amazing Creator. I thank God for designing these amazing creatures.

Why don’t you see if you can find out more about these wonderful creatures? There are many articles on turtles on the internet. See if you can learn something new through ongoing research. You won’t be disappointed!

 

 

 

Turtle Survey at Spring Lake, Texas

 Snapping Turtle

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How we captured, measured, weighed, and collected data on the turtles:

I just returned from an exciting trip to Texas where we were invited to participate in a turtle survey at the small lake at my Son’s house in Arlington, Texas. I learned a lot in the process and thought you would love to see how it was done.

The girls around the lake have a club that is interested in studying and preserving wildlife. Three of the turtle specialist from the university there came to show the girls and the rest of us how to conduct a scientific survey of turtle species. They plan to follow up this study with future visits to the lake.

It all began late in the afternoon. Many traps had to be set up and baited. We had to punch holes in plastic bottles and fill them with bait: sardines, chicken liver, chicken legs, chicken breasts, various kinds of fruit, and more. Each bottle then had to be placed inside the nets and hung so they could attract turtles.

Next, the nets had to be placed in the water. It is important when setting nets to keep the top part out of the water so the turtles can come up and take a breath and not drown. Here are some pictures of the process: The girls used kayaks and well as waded in the water to get them in place.

Once the nets were in place it was time to wait. The girls had a camp out by the lake and got up early the next morning to inspect the traps.

Early risers with their turtle pajamas.

The first turtle found in a small net was Cracker. This turtle was the rescued turtle that helped the girls get in contact with the turtle experts. The turtle was near death when first found last year and it was captured and rehabilitated and returned to the lake where it is thriving. Good thing the girls found it before it died in the lake.  It’s interesting that this turtle was the first to be captured in the survey.

This is Cracker. See the broken shell on the left side by the head.

Next, they pulled the other traps. They found two more turtles, both snappers.

Collecting Data:

Once the turtles were captured and placed in containers, it was time to do the measuring, weighing and examining of the turtles. The girls recorded their data in small field logs indicating the species, whether or not they were male or female, their weight, the measurements of their carapace length, width and depth. They also measured the plastroms and checked the female to see if she were carrying eggs. No eggs were found. The two larger snappers were both males. Calipers were used for the measurements.

After measuring, the shells were inspected for damage and any markings. We discovered some of the turtles were missing claws on their feet and others had part of their shell damaged. This data was recorded using the turtle shell maps given the girls for this purpose.

Releasing the Turtles:

After all the data was collected the turtles were released back into the lake and were rewarded with all the left over bait. It was fun to watch them crawl back into the water and know they were living in a safe place where they would be appreciated.

The Celebration:

After all the excitement it was time to celebrate with turtle pancakes for breakfast. 

Clean Up, Clean Up, Everyone Lend a Hand:

After the celebration all the equipment had to be gathered up to be taken to the next survey over at the river. Many hands made light work.

Thank You to Our Leaders:

We would like the thank all the people from Texas Turtles who helped us, especially Viviana Ricardez  , Andrew Brinker, Carl J. Franklin, our turtle experts. We would also like to acknowledge all the residents of Spring Lake who helped set up this adventure and Calvin and Danae and Barbara at whose house we did the survey.

We learned a lot and have a deeper appreciation for these reptilian creatures.

How to Fold An Articulated Origami Snake

Scales and All:

One of the unit Origami creatures I have created takes on the characteristics of an actual snake. It even has an articulated body with scales. Whenever I have taught classes of kids Origami and offered them an opportunity to select their favorite fold from a wide selection, they usually choose these.

Begin with a Pinwheel Base:

To begin your snake you will need to fold several body segments using the Pinwheel base as a starting place.

Next you will need to raise each of the four points of the Pinwheel up like a shark fin. Push down on the tops so they look like the picture above. Then you turn the fold over and fold the four corners to the center while letting the flaps from the underside pop out. It looks like this:

If you turn it over the underside should look like this:

You can make as many of these as you like, the more you make the longer the snake.

Add just a tiny drop of glue between the units to hold them in their tucked position. Keep adding body units until you reach you desired length.

Heads or Tails or Both?

Now we need a head and a tail. To make a head choose a square of paper slightly larger than your body units. You will fold it in the same way as the body units and then add three more folds to shape the cheeks and nose.

The tail is the easiest part (unless you want to make a rattlesnake). Start with a rectangle as wide as the squares of paper you used to make your body units. Fold an airplane point on one end. On the same end, fold two more airplane points on top of the one you already made. This will make the tail long an slender. On the opposite end fold a single airplane point to make the flap that attaches to the body of the snake. Again, a small drop of glue will keep it attached.

If You Want to Make a Rattlesnake You will have to look at my blog on the Hexoflexagram. The rattle is just an unglued segment of the flexograms. 

Here Is a Finished Rattlesnake:

Here Are Some More Snakes 

 

Add a Tongue and Eyes:

You can create a tongue with a small thin triangle of red paper. Slit it down the middle and curl the sharp end. Glue into the slot under the snake’s nose. You can either add eyes with a felt tip pen or cut out pieces of paper to form the eyes. You can also add “wiggle eyes” that you get from the craft store.

Snakes Are Often Feared But They Get a Bad Wrap!

It’s interesting to see people’s responses to snakes. Though these paper ones are less fearful, the real ones are often greatly feared. If you know the first mention of the snake in the Bible you get a little insight into this response. It’s interesting to see that mankind is responsible for the fearful aspects of this creature. Before the fall of man into sin the creatures were considered just another part if God’s wonderful creation. It was the result of Satan’s possession of the snake and man’s disobedience to God’s command that the snake, as well as all creation, was cursed. I look forward to the day when God removes the curse in the new creation. In the meantime, we can still enjoy observing and learning more about these beautiful creatures.

Wrap Your Paper Snake Around Your Neck or Arm:

Since the body naturally curls it will easily wrap around your neck or arm. Share your creation with others.

Now That’s a Wrap!

 

 

 

 

 

 

Origami Penguins: Make It Your Own

Modify to Get What You Want:

 

One of the exciting things about Origami is that you can take an existing form and improve it. Several variations are possible.

From 2D to 3D

 

  The original model.

 

 

 

3-D Model:

 

 

 

 

 

The original penguin fold I learned several years ago was pretty basic and it was a flat 2-D model. It worked well for flat surfaces like greeting cards. I desired to create a 3-D form that could be placed on a flat surface to mimic a penguin standing on ice. It took several attempts to arrive at a model that seemed to represent a more realistic penguin model.

 Here was one of my first attempts. I made a smaller one and inserted it into the larger one to imitate an adult caring for its young.

 Here was another model.

 This model has a rounded belly.

Cut an Iceburg 

If you take a piece of white paper and cut an irregular shape, you can create a base. You can also make the base 3-D by placing rectangles on each edge and folding them down. You can also use a sheet of plastic foam or styrofoam for your icebergs.

Party Favor or Place Marker:

When mounted on a sheet of paper, these make great party favors or centerpieces for the table. You could also put names on them to indicate seating arrangements. I suppose you can think of many more ways to use them.

Do You Want To Fold One?

Start with a square of two-sided paper: black and white. Put the white side up to begin.

Next , fold a crease down the middle with the paper in the diamond position.

Now, fold an air-plane point on the top meeting in the middle.

Think of a Teepee for the next fold. Fold up the two sides of the black so it looks like an open door on a teepee.

Then fold the paper like this to the corner points on each side:

Next, pop fold the top part under the back like this:

 Repeat on the other side wing.

Turn the paper over to the black backside.

Fold the paper like this to form the head. It is like a zigzag:

 

Now, fold the form in half like this:

Pinch the head and pull back. Then squeeze the paper to hold the shape.

 

Now let’s form the head and beak:

 

 

Lay the  bird on its side. Next, fold the tail end diagonally up to shape the belly pocket:

 Pop fold it in:

Now, let’s form the foot:

Now, let’s open the belly pocket: put one finger in front to open the pocket. Put another finger in the back to push forward widening the body and forming the belly bulge:

Put a dab of glue on your iceburge and place the penguin where you want it.

 

Create a whole colony.

These amazing creatures like to live in large colonies. God gave them the ability to live in places other creatures would freeze. This allows them to raise their young with few predators to bother them. The fathers incubate the eggs and raise the young while the mothers are out to sea gathering food. Soon the mothers return to assume the responsibility of raising the young allowing the fathers to return to sea to eat after such a long time of going without eating.

Learn More About These Amazing Birds:

I am always amazed at the great design of our Creator, God, Who gave each creature the ability to reproduce after its own kind and survive in unique places. Each creature is a testimony of His greatness. Why not read the story of Creation in the Book of Genesis in your Bible. You can also learn much more about the various types of penguins by doing research on the internet or reading books about them from the library.